- Employer tax exclusion
- Health-related tax credits
- Health-related tax deductions
- Health Savings Accounts
- Nonprofit tax exemption
The Tax Policy Center estimates that all told, tax expenditures in 2012 amounted to roughly $1.3 trillion, inclusive of policies that reduced income tax revenues ($1.092T), increased federal spending, such as through refundable tax credits ($91B) and reductions in other tax revenues such as payroll taxes ($113B). These are only approximate since they merely sum up the OMB’s estimates of the impact of a large number of individual tax expenditures. However, some analysts have estimated that the aggregate impact of individual income tax expenditures, for example, is 10 percent higher when considered in the aggregate than when individual components are summed separately.
- Joint Committee on Taxation. Estimates Of Federal Tax Expenditures For Fiscal Years 2010-2014. December 21, 2010. Annual report on size of all federal tax expenditures.
- Joint Committee on Taxation. Tax Expenditures for Health Care. July 30, 2008.
- Joint Committee on Taxation. Background Information On Tax Expenditure Analysis And Historical Survey Of Tax Expenditure Estimates. March 09, 2011.