Person mandates simply require coverage of identifiable groups, including adopted children, dependent students, handicapped dependents, newborns and non-custodial children. By convention, requirements to permit conversion of coverage to non-group policies also are considered person mandates. Also by convention, these mandates do not include mandates for selected services targeted at a particular population such as substance abuse treatment, 48-hour maternity stays or mammography screening. They are restricted to instances in which an entire group receives the same array of coverage as others, not just individual services. With the except of conversion to non-group, which sometimes takes the form of a mandated offering (plans must offer it, but not every plan sold must include this feature), all person mandates require the inclusion of coverage for all plans sold. The Duke Center for Health Policy has developed a draft working paper on the benefits and costs of person mandates: (pdf).