Determinants of Health


  • Subramanian SV, Belli P, Kawachi I. The macroeconomic determinants of health. Annual Review of Public Health (2002) 23:287–302. [Abstract]
  • Kim D, Kawachi I. U.S. State-level social capital and health-related quality of life: multilevel evidence of main, mediating, and modifying effects. Annals of Epidemiology (2007) 17(4):258–69. [Abstract]
  • Marmot M. The influence of income on health: views of an epidemiologist. Health Affairs (2002) 21(2):31–46. [Full Text]
  • Rehkopf DH, Berkman LF, Coull B, et al. The non-linear risk of mortality by income level in a healthy population: US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey mortality follow-up cohort, 1988–2001. BMC Public Health (2008) 8:383. [Abstract]
  • Muennig P, Franks P, Jia H, et al. The income-associated burden of disease in the United States. Social Science and Medicine 2005; 61:2018–26. [Abstract]
  • Cristia, Julian P. The Empirical Relationship Between Lifetime Earnings and Mortality. Congressional Budget Office. August 2007.
  • Flow of Funds Accounts of the U.S. (wealth statistics issued quarterly by the Federal Reserve Board).
  • Rector, Robert and Rachel Sheffield, ‘‘Air Conditioning, Cable TV, and an Xbox: What is Poverty in the United States Today,’’ The Heritage Foundation (July 19, 2011).
  • Wilkinson, Richard. How economic inequality harms societies. Provides cross-national and cross-state statistics linking inequality to various measures of adverse outcomes.
  • Wilkinson, Richard and Kate Pickett. The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger. Countries and times with lower inequality fare better on virtually every published index of health, well-being and quality of life.
  • Daron Acemoglu on Inequality
  • Wolff, Edward N. ‘‘Recent Trends in Household Wealth in the United States: Rising Debt and the Middle-Class Squeeze — an Update to 2007,’’ Levy Economics Institute of Bard College, Working Paper 589 (June 2007). The top 10 percent own approximately 75 percent of the nation’s wealth, and the top 1 percent own nearly half of that 75 percent.
  • Louisa Kroll and Kerry A. Dolan, ‘‘Inside the List: Facts and Figures,’’ Forbes, Sept. 21, 2011, available at Forbes 400 own approximately $1.53 trillion worth of assets, or almost $4 billion average.
  • Avi Feller and Chad Stone, ‘‘Top 1 Percent of Americans Reaped Two-Thirds of Income Gains in Last Economic Expansion,’’ Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (Sept. 9, 2009), available at In 1928, the top 1 percent in the country earned 23.9 percent of all income.
  • Edward N. Wolff, Top Heavy (2nd ed. 2001). In 1929, before the stock market crash, the top 1 percent controlled 44.2 percent of the nation’s wealth.

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